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Notes on video lecture:
Mozi's Religious Fundamentalism and Organized Activism
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
ideal, Mencius, grass, anthropomorphic, spirits, Sundays, watched, humans, advantageous, police, pretend, medal, watching, revive, sacrifice, good, surveillance, contributions, activist, thousand, house, minority, elite, civilization, present, defensive, condemned, cheating, equally, order, private, Zhuangzi, depersonalized, act, impartial, literally
Mozi (470-391 BCE) as a fundamentalist and                 
two chapters: "On Ghosts" and "Heaven's Will"
understand these chapters on the background of two trends of the growing            as the Warring States period moves on
agnosticism
becoming unclear if ghosts and                exist
Mozi wants to              this
that ghosts and spirits are alive and active agents on the Earth
he wants it to be a kind of invisible              force
Confucius says: sacrifice as if they spirits are               
one way to read this is that Confucius believes that the spirits are not there but you have to                they are there
Mozi thinks that's a terrible idea
in his chapter "On Ghosts" he presents his position that he wants to make sure that the people                    believe in ghosts
his key argument why people should do this is that it is                         
it increases            in the state
an increasingly                              view of tian, or heaven
or the Shang and the Zhou dynasties
tien is an                                being
an active being who sends down mandates
becomes more of a generic force
it's doing something
but doesn't have intentions
not acting like a person
Mozi is upset with this trend
for Mozi, tian is up there and                  you
tian practices impartial caring itself and wants us to do the same
ghosts and spirits were like a police force
makes people behave
people behave better when they think they are being watched by invisible agents
supernatural                          in human behavior
research: Haley, Kevin, Fessler
when they replaced random patterns with eyes, you are much more generous, i.e. cues of being               
research:Bateson
offices, if you take coffee, put in some money
when you manipulate the image, i.e. have human eyes,                            went up
research: Piazza
children in situations where they could be                 
princess Alice lived in the lab
watched people are good people
research: porn consumption
where there is high levels of Christianity, people watch less porn on               
Mozi argued its a crucial tool you need in your toolbox if you are going to get people to act in accordance with                    caring
Mozi and his followers were activists
"killing one person is condemned, but killing a                  people in war is encouraged"
if you kill people on a large scale you get a           , if you kill one person, you get thrown in jail
stealing some peaches and plus from an orchard is                   , but not stealing an entire state
Mozi is against offensive warfare
it doesn't increase the wealth, population, and order of the state
wants to stop the warfare of the warring states
argumentation
action: going to the defense of attacked states
became experts in                    warfare
Mozi saved a weaker state in the Warring States
Chu was a large, aggressive state
Chu developed a scaling ladder to scale city walls
convinced another king not to attack
Mozi was an activist, unlike typical Confucian followers
believed you had to get out in the world and       
made his followers do the same
took as the sage king Yu
a vigorous and tireless worker who rescued China from the raging waters of the flooding Yellow River
made it inhabitable for             
created                         
he was so dedicated to his task that he passed his            three times
so dedicated to the public          that he didn't even stop to say hello
this, of course, appealed to the Mohists, who believed one should not be concerned about one's                life but only the public life and others
Mohists described
from the last book of the                 , Book 33, "Under Heaven", a description of the Mohists
"Many of the Mohists of later ages wear furs and rough clothing, clogs and            slippers, never resting day or night, taking self-sacrifice as the highest. They say one who cannot do this is not following the way of Yu and doesn't deserve to be called a Mohist. Thtey press each other forward in self-sacrifice until there's no flesh left on their calves or hair on their shins.
so they are described as kind of crazy, fanatic activists
but they have an inspiring           
concerned only by objective concerns for other people
we are concerned only impartially with what is good for everyone
we think things through logically
it's hard to argue against the Mohists
people make fun of them because they are uncomfortable
there is something about self-                   in an extreme way
it's hard to argue against people who say you should help all children               , not just your own children
criticism against Mozi
he doesn't take into account human nature
               (372-289 BC)
argued against Mozi
not logically or intellectually
human beings are just not built in a way that they can follow this idea
yet there are some people who do self-sacrifice
but they seem to always be a                  of human beings

Ideas and Concepts:

Fifth Century BCE Chinese fundamentalism via this evening's Ancient Chinese Philosophy class:

"Mozi (470-391 BCE) wrote two chapters in which he expressed his religious fundamentalism in response to the growing trend among the Warring States era's elite and common people regarding their increasingly depersonalized conception of tian, or heaven, and their general agnosticism.

In his chapter "Heaven's Will", Mozi criticized the current popular belief that tian was merely an abstract idea. Instead, Mozi advocated the literal beliefs of the Shang and Zhou dynasties in which tian was an active anthropomorphic being who sent down real mandates to Earth for people to carry out.

In his chapter "On Ghosts", he argues similarly that spirits and ghosts are literally present and active on Earth:they're watching you, you're not alone, they are agents of heaven who watch to make sure you practice impartial caring and will punish and reward you accordingly, functioning as a kind of invisible police force.

One cannot help to see Mozi's pragmatism in these arguments, his key reason for advocating these literal beliefs in both elites and common people is that such beliefs are advantageous to the goals of the state."
On early psychological tools of pragmatic mass manipulation, via this evening's Ancient Chinese Philosophy class:

"Mozi (470-391 BCE) argued that supernatural surveillance was a crucial tool a leader needs to instill in the population if people are going to consistently act in accordance with impartial caring, i.e getting people to care for others impartially. People behave better when they think they are being watched by invisible agents, ghosts and spirits acting as a kind of ubiquitous police force.

One important question is whether Mozi himself believed in these entities himself. But in understanding his pragmatic approach, at a certain level it doesn't really matter, since his point was that it has good effects in the society and so we should at least purport to believe in these things and we should make sure that the common people believe in them."
The Definition of Religion
Mind/Body Dualism and Cognitive Control
Deontology, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Ethics
Wu-Wei, Dao, Tien and De
The Shang Dynasty (1554-1045 BC)
The Beginnings of Written Chinese History
Eastern Holistic Thinking and the Paradox of Virtue
The Golden Age of the Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE)
Philosophical and Conceptual Innovations in Zhou Thought
Confucius and the Analects
Confucius: I Transmit, I Do Not Innovate
Confucius' Use of Ritual as a Tool
Confucius' View on Learning vs. The Enlightenment
Confucius and Holistic Education
Confucius and the Art of Self-Cultivation
At Home in Virtue
Non-Coercive Comportment, Virtue, and Charisma of the Zhou
The Transition to Becoming Sincere
The Primitivists in the Analects
Laozi and the Daodejing
Laozi: Stop the Journey and Return Home
Laozi and The Desires of the Eye
Laozi: He Who Speaks Does Not Know
The Concept of Reversion
Laozi on Shutting Down the Prefrontal Cortex
The Guodian Laozi
Mozi and Materialist State Consequentialism
Mozi's Idea of Ideological Unity
Mozi's Doctrine of Impartial Caring
Mozi's Anti-Confucian Chapters
Mozi's Religious Fundamentalism and Organized Activism
The Language Crisis in the Warring States Period