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Notes on video lecture:
The Ligoniers: The Tensions of Gender in Paint
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
flaring, noticed, horses, softened, gentleman, liberation, decisive, gentry, 1771, Edward, marriages, forced, Roman, forelock, tragedy, equal, sexuality, abstemiousness, ingratiating, arts, Oxford, novels, upstage, engaging, loved, 1771, marginalized, mutuality, duress, provocative, scandal, sensibility, feminine, France, Alfieri, roguish, gaze, equine, quotidian, passion, prominently, Venus, brain, California, dwarfing, cocked
the Ligonier paintings
            , Second Viscount Ligonier
Penelope, Viscountess Ligonier
both portraits painted in         
located at The Huntington Art Collections in                     
outstanding examples of 18th century portraiture
fine examples of the gendered culture of                       
Gainsborough painted a number of portraits of the              and landed aristocracy
in which              take a prominent position
Ligonier's father George Pitt
founded library at             
commissioned for Gainsborough to paint both paintings
Painting #1: Edward, Second Viscount Ligonier
presents Lord Ligonier in                    mode, as an everyday man of sensibility
he is relaxed and leaning against his horse
the horse is place more                        in the composition than its master
and addresses the viewer in a more                  way
British portraitists grappled with teh problem of introducing horses into human portraiture without physically                  the man or woman who constitutes the portrait's principal subject
avoided direct comparisons of the human sitter and his or her              companion
often relegating the horse to a                          position within the picture
but Gainsborough took pains to give the two figures            prominence
made comparisons between Lord Ligonier and his horse inescapable
the placement of the Viscount's raised right arm
his dangling hat
his                coat
server to cut off the receding hindquarters of the horse
so that it appears to stand upright on two legs like the man beside it
the horse attracts the eyes as much as the                    does
the horse is made to take on some of the characteristics of femininity
                         femininity (intended to gain approval or favor)
the soulful gaze
the horses alertly              ears
the romantically flowing                  invest the creature with an uncanny appearance of sympathetic sensitivity
the horse is threatening to                its master as the primary subject of the picture
or it may be a way to emphasize the quality of the man of sensitivity of one who is kind and attentive to the horses on which he depended
Viscount Ligonier was the owner of a large stable of horses
known to spend large periods of time in the company of his animals
Ligioner is presented in a very relaxed, if not slightly                pose
legs astride
while his mare stands neatly and and modestly by his side
perhaps Gainsborough simply intended to accurately represent Ligonier with a            mare
his portrait is not unsympathetic to Viscount Ligonier
the portrait is a celebration of the mare and her master
an informal and very lively portrait of a country gentleman with his horse
Painting #2: Penelope, Viscountess Ligonier
painted in early         
the culture of sensibility was itself a culture of women
two sides of the culture of sensibility's orientation toward reform were
1. the                      of women from their internalized and brutally enforced limitation
2. reformation of men
both stemmed in part from the reformist impulses of women who sought to change mild manners from the vice, profanity, wantonness in the dueling culture of the masculine sphere
to a way of life that celebrated virtue,                             , piousness, charity, homeliness, and an appreciation of the         
these values were generally considered to be                 
its fundamental intention was to reshape men
although each sex was to be                  and sensitized
some proponents of the culture of sensitivity claims that women were capable of all things
"there is no labor of the            which women are not as capable of performing at least as well as men"
female                    was also emerging as a subject for scientific debate
some theorists of sensibility argued that women as well as men had a sex drive, and that women had a sexual appetite that was as innate as that of men
the heroines of the 18th century              show that they wish for and need sexuality
but with a partner tested for civility, gentleness and                   
novels were full of elopement and of clandestine correspondence between women avoiding authoritarian husbands and their lovers
with the emergence of woman's self-assertive consciousness came a concern over what was described as the woman of unbridled sexual sensibility, especially among literate women
one of the reasons that the novel came under attack was that reading them could sexually arouse women and this made                    uncontrollable
there are few portraits of this quality painted of women in 18th century Britain that are associated this level of sexual               
less than three months after the portraits were complete and while they were still on exhibition at the Royal Academy
Viscount Ligonier fought a duel with his wife's lover, Count Vittorio               
Lady Ligonier fled to             
the Viscount sued for divorce
dueling was one of the practices which the culture of sensibility sought to outlaw
in this sense Viscount Ligonier failed the test of sensibility
Count Vittorio Alfieri
was more a man of sensibility
poet and playwright
the founder of Italian               
but him seducing Lady Ligonier and then leaving her would certainly not qualify him as a man of feeling
Gainsborough noted that he was              in accepting this commission
he completed the portraits under some             
a number of characteristics in these portraits suggest that Gainsborough                the difficulty in relationship between the two sitters
and made a subtle commentary upon it in his paintings
Viscountess Ligonier stares in a very determined way out of the picture plane
and away from the viewer
refusing to meet our         
her look is independent and aloof
her manner so                  as it might be defined as defiant
her attitude seems at odds with that of a demure and happy wife
or perhaps she's merely lost in determined thought
included attributes associated with               
the shell motif prominently placed on the pedestal behind Lady Ligonier
a symbol of           
resting upon the pedestal is a statue of a naked, dancing, bacchant
Penelope is dressed in a           -style costume
she pulls the skirt of her costume with her right hand to her hip, revealing her petticoat
all of these features suggest that Penelope has had or will have her way in love
Gainsborough is sexualizing Lady Ligonier
showing her as a fashionable and independent woman of her time
but Penelope's father hung this picture in his house suggesting that there was nothing particularly                        in the way his daughter had been presented

Vocabulary:

ingratiating, adj. intended to gain approval or favor  "The horse is made to take on some of the characteristics of femininity, even ingratiating femininity."
abstemiousness, n. [ab-STEEM-ee-us-ness] the quality of being temperate or sparing in the use of food and strong drinks  "Two sides of the 19th century culture of sensibility's orientation toward reform were (1) the liberation of women from their internalized and brutally enforced limitation, and (2) reformation of the character of men, and both stemmed in part from the reformist impulses of women who sought to change manners from the vice, profanity, and wantonness in the dueling culture of the masculine sphere, to a way of life that celebrated virtue, abstemiousness, piousness, charity, homeliness, and an appreciation of the arts, and while these values were generally considered to be feminine, the fundamental intention was to reshape men, although each sex was to be softened and sensitized."

Spelling Corrections:

wantonesswantonness

Ideas and Concepts:

On 18th century female sensuality and the dangers of reading, via tonight's Sexing the Canvas class:

"As the 18th century progressed, female sexuality was emerging as a subject for scientific debate. Some theorists of sensibility argued that women as well as men had a sex drive, and that women had a sexual appetite that was as innate as that of men.

The heroines of the 18th century novels show that they wish for and need sexuality, but with a partner tested for civility, gentleness and mutuality. Novels were full of elopement and of clandestine correspondence between women avoiding authoritarian husbands and their lovers.

With the emergence of woman's self-assertive consciousness came a concern over what was described as the woman of unbridled sexual sensibility, especially among literate women. In fact, one of the reasons that the 18th century novel came under attack was that reading them could sexually arouse women which made marriages uncontrollable."
Tiepolo´s Cleopatra: Agency in Paint
The Political and Sexual Agency of Cleopatra
Gainesborough and 18th Century Effeminism
Soldiers, Chivalry, and Men of Feeling
Gainsborough's Portrait of Karl Friedrich Abel
The Ligoniers: The Tensions of Gender in Paint
Effeminacy and the Culture of Sensibility
Gainsborough's Cottage Door: Charity and Sensibility
Seduction in Boucher's pastoral paintings
Boucher's Madame de Pompadour: Controlling the Gaze
Rococo Eroticism in 18th Century Popular Culture
John Lavery in Morocco: Orientalism and the Academy
Hazel Lavery and the Politics of Display
Hilda Rix Nicholas in Morocco
The Dream by Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau's The Sleeping Gypsy
Restaging the Nude: Matisse's Dance
Cezanne’s Bather: Masculinity and Movement
Max Dupain (1911-1992): Australian Men on the Beach
Frida Kahlo's Fulang-Chang and I
Frida Kahlo: Self Portrait with Cropped Hair