Lectures Watched
Since January 1, 2014
Hundreds of free, self-paced university courses available:
my recommendations here
Peruse my collection of 275
influential people of the past.
View My Class Notes via:
Receive My Class Notes via E-Mail:


Contact Me via E-Mail:
edward [at] tanguay.info
Notes on video lecture:
Philosophical Benchmarks in Science
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
critical, discuss, compare, further, hierarchical, shunned, dialogue, natural, reproducibility, mountains, accuracy, claims, fit, rejection, predictions, Method, questioning, testable, scientific, biology, prevailed, humans, Dutch, anomaly, startling, paleontologist, fossils
what does science provide us?
Socrates (470BC-399BC)
one of the great heroes of                      endeavor
society was                         
Socrates employed                  free thought to this hierarchical society and its ideas
use reason and               
dialectical method
learning through disciplined, rigorous, and thoughtful                  and logically defending one's ideas during intensive                       
the step forward for                  in understanding the natural world
Aristotle (384BC-322BC)
did a lot of hiking in the                    throughout Greece
found marine                high in mountains
philosophized about their origin
in this sense he was an early                             , someone who studies life through geologic time based on the principle of geology and               
assumptions and evidence were important to him: what are your theories assuming and what evidence do you have to support your             ?
what kind of                        are you making and how are they                 ?
analogy identifies               
analogy: we as humans have an experiential base which we bring to anything we are a part of
if we see something new, the first thing we do is                it to something else we have experienced before
anomaly: those areas where our analogy does not        completely to the phenomena being observed
it is exactly these things that become interesting, concerning, or                    about what is being observed, and something that should be identified as a topic of                investigation
René Descartes (1596-1650)
French philosopher and mathematician who spent most of his life in the            Republic
1637 book: Discourse on the              of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences
carefully and accurately using critical reasoning and our senses, we can acquire knowledge about the                world and build a foundation to acquire more knowledge
Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)
1962 book: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
one of the natures of science is that it is done by              within society
some of the most important developments in science have been accompanied by pain, struggle, and                   
those scientific discoveries that have been                by society which were also based in                                and testable predictions, have generally                   
Reductionism vs. Holism
Philosophical Benchmarks in Science
Scientific Inquiry
Order of Magnitude in the Sciences