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Notes on video lecture:
Three Pillars of the EU: ECSC, EEC/EC, EURATOM
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Atomic, approximation, Costa, Loos, undistored, consensus, decision, supranationalism, Rome, Luxembourg, distinct, Merger, Lisbon, defense
1951 European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
failed to come to a                or political community
1957 European              Energy Community (EURATOM)
purpose: to create a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe
today legally                  from the European Union
1957 European Economic Community (EEC)
created by the Treaty of         
known as Common Market
                           of economic policies
1965              Treaty
1993: renamed the European Community (EC) by the Maastricht Treaty
2009: EC was abolished by the Treaty of              in which the EU would replace and succeed the European Community
general periods
1950s: "successful 50s"
1951 ECSC
1957 EEC
1960-1970s: Eurosclerosis
stagnation period, very little progress from a legislative point of view
conflicting views of                  making
intergovernmentalism vs.                                 
intergovernmentalism approach: EU states could not be bound by EU acts unless they agreed to these acts, i.e. favored nation veto
France, de Gaulle remained absent at all European Community, the "Empty Chair" crisis
solved in                      Agreements
an agreement to disagree
if a national interest is invoked, member states would search for a consensus
disagreement on how to proceed if no                    found
in practice, the French position prevailed
supranational approach: countries could be bound by EU acts against their will
some progress
Court became the motor of integration
1963: Van Gend en         
"principle of direct effect"
came from the case of reclassifying a chemical entailing higher customs charges
established that provisions of the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community were capable of creating legal rights which could be enforced by both natural and legal persons before the courts of the Community's member states
1964:            vs. ENEL
established the supremacy of European Union law over the laws of its member states
Mr. Costa was an Italian citizen who refused by pay his electric bill because he argued that the nationalisation of the electricity industry violated the Treaty of Rome and the Italian Constitution
the Italian judge, the Giudice Conciliatore of Milan referred the case first to the Italian Constitutional Court and then to the European Court of Justice
right of individuals to directly invoke European provisions before national courts
Three Pillars of the EU: ECSC, EEC/EC, EURATOM