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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1919 Self-Determination Movements in India
Notes taken on October 6, 2018 by Edward Tanguay
in retrospect, we know that the powers being imagined in 1919 were doomed to failure
we have to resist the temptations to engage in the retrospective fallacy
to read history backward as if people should have known at the time that what they imagined as doomed
Wilson was an optimist
lessons could be learned from the First World War
many warned that the peace was unsustainable
turning African and Middle East colonies into protectorates
John Maynard Keynes
advisor in France to the British delegation
appalled at what he saw
wrote one of the great polemical tracts of the 20th century: "The Economic Consequences of the Peace"
the treaty was vengeful, unfair, and pays little attention to the economic consequences of its terms
the victors drove too high a price over the defeated and that there would be a war in response to it
the discourse of the Wilson and Lenin models
the problem of self-determination would reconcile the conflicts at the core of the system
one needed a democratic constitution in Europe as the core
put an end to the European conflict
what to do with the multicultural empires that were now nations
resistance ensued from these territories
India fastened on this idea of self-determination
political cartoon
Captain Wilson is going to sail the vessel S.S. Self Determination to freedom
India has no passport and so cannot board
the passport office resembles the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Defence of India Act 1915
an emergency criminal law enacted by the Governor-General of India in 1915 with the intention of curtailing the nationalist and revolutionary activities during and in the aftermath of the First World War
the arrival of the language of self-determination mobilized India
Ghandi (1869-1948)
not just for home rule within the British Empire as Canada had, but a spiritual succession
Indians to be free had to be spiritually free from the British
escalated to patterns of direct action
taxes upon the local people to repair the war damages
1919 Amritsar Massacre, Punjab
Colonel Reginald Dyer order rifles to be fired into a crowd of Indians peacefully protesting
left 300 dead and 1000 injured
Dyer later defended actions saying he was putting down a revolutionary army
but most victims were civilians
created a symbol of British oppression
1930 Gandhi's Salt March
long walk, thousands joined him
led to his arrest
led to mass unrest and uprising
became a model for civil disobedience world wide
back in London there was a consensus growing that while speaking of principles of self-determination in Europe, it was impossible to deny them in India
we begin to see the slow withdrawal and hemorrhaging of domestic support for British rule in India
the trouble was that Britain was so dependent on the Indian colony to fund British reconstruction after the war