More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
The Ancient Greeks
Andrew Szegedy-Maszak, Wesleyan University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
508 BC: The Democratic Reforms of Cleisthenes
Notes taken on April 12, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
508 BC: set Athens on democratic footing
came from the Alcmaeonidae [alk-MEE-an-id-igh] clan
was originally mistrusted because of impiety and sacrilege committed by Megacles
632 BC: Megacles was the archon eponymous was convicted of killing Cylon's supporters and was exiled from the city
story of revolution of Athens
shows how controversial this family was
Herodotus tells us
Alcmaeonids has furnished a new temple at Delphi
had bribed the priestess there
anytime a Spartan came, the priestess should say "free Athens"
this worked for Cleomenes [klee-OM-ah-neez]
first supported Isogarus
undertook a wholesale reconstruction of the Athenian constitution
divides Attica
each of the three areas were divided into ten trittyes
each trittys was made up of one or more demes
the heart of the system
the demes were the preexisting neighborhoods
in the city a deme might be a block or a neighborhood
in a country a deme was more of an area
ten new tribes (phylai) were created
each consisting of three trittyes, one in each area
each one named after a hero
this obliterated the local power of the old clans
Athens was redefined on a geographical basis
no longer the property classes that Solon had set up
each tribe should represent a cross section of the population
each roughly equal in size
most important in the life of the individual
deme identity was what made you a citizen
when males turned 18, an adult recommended you, you were scrutinized, then inducted and became citizen
your deme name became part of your name
had meetings
official identifications
officers, treasury
comprised the new council
there was a shadowy council of 400 that Solon had created
tribes made up the new boule
500 citizens
50 selected by lot every year from each tribe
served as a new education center
frame legislation
debated and voted on by the assembly
"it seemed good to the people"
send out ambassadors
final power to declare war stayed with the assembly
an important new democratic invention
a group of 500 was a bit big to connect business
ten units of year
one tribe would serve for a tenth of the year
all of this was a mechanism which draws all citizens into governing their own state
a massive undertaking
must have required some kind of citizen
deme identification was passed from father to son
even if you moved
included all citizens
guaranteed freedom of speech
to persuade, you had to speed publicly and well
9 archons
10 Strategoi (generals)
archons served for just one year, then examination
generals could be reelected without limit
Pericles was never an archon but was a general over and over
great speaker
during the Greek Golden Age (5th century BC Greece), Athenian military and external affairs were mostly entrusted to the ten strategoi who were elected each year by the ten tribes of citizens
popular courts
citizens juries to hear cases
introduced by Cleisthenes
an official process
needed to have a quorum of 6000
each had a pot shard
each wrote a name on it
the citizen that got the most votes had to leave Athens for ten years
clearly meant to deter tyranny
according to Aristotle, one of the most democratic parts of Cleisthenes reforms
these reforms much has required a large amount of logistical preparation
we have almost no evidence as to how it was conducted
was a pivotal moment in history
usually today we speak of more gradually changes in history
but the Athenian revolution and the Cleisthenic reforms
this was new and massive change
in society and politics
laid the foundation for democracy which has been emulated in Western culture
lasted in this polis for at least 200 years