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C O U R S E 
Designing Cities
Gary Hack, University of Pennsylvania
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Megacities and Megaregions
Notes taken on January 8, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
Kansas City is a typical U.S. city and can stand for what has happened and is happening in other places
river boats on the Missouri River
wagons carrying settlers Westward leaving from Westport along the Santa Fe trail
connected to west coast
local street railways were built which enabled urban extensions
mostly south of the city center
new residential districts had landscaped streets and parks
the Country Club district
some could be reached by public transit
most of the extended development on the map could only be reached by car
by 1950, three of four households owned cars
at that time, the most automobile dependent country in the world
growth that followed street car tended to be along the line
growth in the suburbs began around railway stations
after the auto became more ubiquitous, roads were built anywhere
spread over the Kansas state line to southwest
intended for middle and upper-income people
partly fueled by desegregating the Kansas City school system
there was no busing over the state line
what happened in Kansas City was comparable to what happened in other U.S. cities
they were splitting into two parts: old city from 1950 and new suburban city
"The Fractured Metropolis"
in most other countries, the old centers remained dominant
1. the old city: pre-1950 city
the original downtown was now at the periphery of the more affluent new city
many of the old neighborhoods had emptied out
at the time, it looked like everybody in the old cities were in deep trouble
everyone who had a choice were migrating to the new, affluent suburbs
had most of the new office buildings, best shopping, restaurants, and entertainment
2. the new city: suburban growth
developed retail and office centers of its own
more spread out than the old central city
e.g. College Boulevard in Overland Park, Kansas
until 1970s was a far out suburb of Kansas City
some former intersections in suburbs with only one gas station can now have millions of square feet of office space and retail
edge cities
Tyson's Corner, Virginia has 46 million square feet of office space and retail
by comparison, downtown Dallas has 33 million square feet of office space and retail
Tyson's Corner is a prototype of an edge city
The Perimeter Center, Atlanta
in far north corner of Atlanta
Galleria District, Uptown Houston
used to be residential suburbs
Westwood District, Los Angeles
Bloomington, Minnesota
upscale residential area has become office center
The Mall of America
largest shopping center in the United States
Clayton, Missouri
once an affluent suburb of St. Louis
connected back to St. Louis by metro link
1990s the new urban city kept on spreading to the point that it became dysfunctional for its residents
traffic congestion
long commutes to work
turned mothers with children into chauffeurs
shopping trips which required driving from one destination to another
the old 1950s city
with compact business center
old, walkable neighborhoods, started to look good in comparison
rise in real estate values for walkable neighborhoods and suburbs
meanwhile the new suburban cities kept spreading out and became more and more dysfunctional and unsustainable
South Side Chicago
Scottsdale, Arizona
part of new city related to Phoenix
San Jose, California
freeways and endless suburban development
corrective to dependence on automobiles and sprawling development they create
transit system to connect centers of new city to traditional business center
e.g. between Tyson Center to Washington Metro system
Megalopolis = Big City
1961 Jean Gottmann
cities that were close together and connected by rail and highways
in subsequent decades, these megacities became metaregions
Great Lakes
Piedmont Atlantic
Gulf Coast
Texas Triangle
Arizona Sun Corridor
Front Range
Northern California
Southern California
by 2050 it is projected that 70% of the population will be living in these regions
night views with lights reveal analogous pattern of city regions
Benelux countries
Northern Italy
Beijing: 20 million
Tianjing: 12 million
cities are growing together
much of Japan can be seen as a continuous city
pulled together by well-established high-speed transport
South Korea
similarly urbanized
night satellite view shows energy use
sprawling cities are dominate living areas
by 2050, 3 billion more people
most of this grown in the city regions
many cities at coastlines
in danger if sea levels rise