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C O U R S E 
History of Rock and Roll, Part One
John Covach, University of Rochester
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
First Crossovers: Fats Domino, Chuck Berry, Little Richard
Notes taken on August 9, 2013 by Edward Tanguay
Bill Haley (1925-1981)
Bill Haley and His Comets
Bill Haley the first musician to "really get this Rock and Roll thing"
sold over 25 million records worldwide
self-admitted alcoholic, had alcohol problems at end of life, cancelled European tour
Fats Domino (1928-)
a friendly, cheerful, a bit overweight, and in no way would white audiences feel that he was threatening as was a common view of other black entertainers
laid-back New Orleans kind of feel, a bit country western slant, perhaps a reason why he was more approachable
1955: Ain't it a Shame
1956: Blueberry Hill
was actually a hit for cover tune for Glenn Miller in 1940
1957: I'm Walking
Chuck Berry (1926-)
out of St. Louis
fan of country music
could make his music sound like the blues or country western
many people thought he was white, perhaps because of his ability to imitate country western
1955: Maybelline
Chuck Berry said it was the name of a cow in a book he had as a kid
often said to be a song about the brand of makeup
Chess records earned quite a bit of money on this record
goes back to a song called Ida Red
he saw what was happening with the cross overs and softened his lyrics so they wouldn't have to be fixed or censored yet directly appealing to a teenage audience
1957: School Day
1957: Rock and Roll Music
1958: Sweet Little Sixteen
1958: Johnny Be Good
wrote his own songs which was a bit unusual at the time
Little Richard (1932-)
with Little Richard we're getting away from entertainers who would directly appeal to a white audience
Chuck Berry might have been the first Rock and Roller to write a song about makeup, but Little Richard was the first Rock and Rollar to wear makeup.
a crazy, flamboyant, energetic performer
1955: Tutti Frutti
1956: Long Tall Sally
1958: Good Golly Miss Molley
his music was rawer than Chuck Berry and Fats Domino
Pat Boone (1934-)
takes most of the heat for the "whitening of rock and roll" in the 1950s which involved reperforming and taking credit for songs which black artists couldn't play on the mainstream pop charts
but what he was helped create more and more Rock and Roll as a distinctive style
also had hits that were not cover hits
1956: Don't Forbid Me
1957: April Love
all number one hits which he created himself
recorded for Indy label "Dot"
1955: Ain't that a Shame
1956: Tutti Frutti