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C O U R S E 
Sexing the Canvas: Art and Gender
Jeanette Hoorn, The University of Melbourne
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
John Lavery in Morocco: Orientalism and the Academy
Notes taken on June 26, 2017 by Edward Tanguay
John Lavery (1856-1941)
an Irish painter best known for his portraits and wartime depictions
1913 lived and painted in Morocco
Lavery was living in Northern Morocco in the city of Tangier with his wife and daughter
they lived in that city from time to time over a 30 year period
Australian artist Hilda Rix Nicholas (1884-1961) visited him
"In Morocco" painting
wife and daughter were models for the painting
color scheme is delightful
there is a little Arab boy in a djellaba (a long loose-fitting unisex outer robe with full sleeves, worn in the Maghreb region of North Africa)
a vibrant, almost cinematic painting
1915 acquired by the National Gallery of Victoria
was regarded as one of his masterpieces
the brilliant evocation of the fleeting effects of sunlight
shows a talent for brilliant composition with a striking use of color and light, and an attention to local costume
provides a record of the incursions of Europeans into Morocco
an example of orientalist painting in academia in the early 20th century
an evocative study of light and color
we see the artist's family in the compound of Dar-el-Midfa
the daughter's stallion is dressed in lavish Arabian trimmings
a Moroccan lad restrains the family's greyhound
his wife, Hazel Lavery, was herself an artist
power and agency of figures presented
are the women active or passive figures
what role does the young boy play in the setting
how do the animals interact with the human figures in the composition
the appearance of the Lavery family in oriental costume has political overtones
it's not merely relevant from a decorative or artistic viewpoint
this was a theme mostly of British and French artists, even before Napoleon
intellectual interest followed economic ambition
artists of the 20th century were more concerned about the formal qualities of paint, color, light, and composition
focusing on the every day life of the Maghreb (area of northwest Africa) and their enjoyment of it
Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863)
French Romantic artist regarded as leader of the French Romantic school
visited Morocco in the 1830s
painted themes centered on the harems and paschas
17th century writers such as Racine (1639-1699) and Moliere (1622-1673)
produced written works based on narratives around Turkish themes
Turkish art, sculpture and architecture became the subject of sustained French scholarship
artists such as Jean-Etienne Liotard (1702-1789) and Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
visited the Turkish court in Constantinople
painted portraits of Turkish dignitaries in what the West described as Oriental costume
1704 The Arabian Nights were translated into French, 1706 into English
1885 translation by Richard Burton made it a well-known work in the West
after Napoleon's incursion into Egypt (1788-89)
Orientalism became more popular in cosmopolitan centers throughout Europe
there had been interest in Morocco by European artists over many centuries
Spain claimed control over the North African coast in the early 17th century
England established a naval colony in Northern African in 1661
France formerly annexed Algeria later in 1830
it became France's largest and most prosperous colony
1832 prepared to send a delegation to Morocco
sent a diplomatic mission which included Eugene Delacroix
he was 34 in 1832
wrote Moroccan diaries
spent three days in Algiers
1834 made sketches for Women of Algiers
1954 Picasso remade this painting
David Roberts (1796-1864)
Scottish painter
known for a prolific series of detailed lithograph prints of Egypt and the Near East that he produced from sketches he made during long tours of the region (1838–1840)
1830s, traveled to Tangier
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
visited North Africa
"the light and vivid colors of North Africa contained the germ of my future researches"
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
visited North Africa
a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine sensuality
Delacroix's diary and his work inspired many other artists to visit Tangier
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933)
an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass
associated with Art Nouveau
Robert Swain Gifford (1840-1905)
an American landscape painter influenced by the Barbizon school (an art movement towards Realism in art arising out of Romanticism in the 19th century)