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C O U R S E 
Russian History: from Lenin to Putin
Peter Kenez, University of California, Santa Cruz
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Industrial Revolution and the Failure of the Russian Ruling Class
Notes taken on March 13, 2019 by Edward Tanguay
industrialization in the last decades of the 19th century as remarkably successful
Sergei Witte, Minister of Finance 1889-1891
argued that Russia needed to industrialize to remain a great power
have to be able to have a great army
moving armies around
conservative modernization
wanted a positive balance of trade
was able to put Russia on the gold standard
meant that various foreign investors entered
had the consequence that after the Revolution, the French wanted their money back
resulted in building railroads, factories
the building of the trans-Siberian railroad
the conservatism of the court was a handicap
afraid of the power of education
compared to Japan
industrialization successful
social tension
the beginning of an industrial proletariat
had close connection from the countryside
different than Europe
Russian proletariat didn't have the ability to organize as in Europe
they were miserable
felt part of the European spirit which was at the time imperialism
1905 Russo-Japanese War
ended disastrously for the Russians
Revolution of 1905
direct consequence of losing that war
three constituent factors
working classes
army, on the verge of mutiny
didn't succeed
because these three groups were not united
nobility won by giving concessions, significant
created Duma
political parties could be and were formed
extreme right and extreme left
responsibility of World War I
astounding that the leaders of the countries that fought were from the same spirit
nobody in the ruling circles in any of these countries foresaw what kind of war they were entering into
nobody wanted the kind of war which actually came about
the Russian state was less able to mobilize than the other European countries
to what extent was Russia modernizing before the Revolution
if the war had not occurred, might have this modernization been successful
given the mentality of the ruling circle, it was not such as to be able to modernize on its own
January 1917
British ambassador came to see the Czar
expressed concern of the Russian armies to resist the Germans
said: you must regain the confidence of your people
the Czar responded: it is the people who must regain my confidence
this indicated the inability of the Czarist court to understand the modern world