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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Africa's Second Imperial Wave
Notes taken on August 19, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
the Suez Canal
plowed through the land to connect the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean
transformed the relationship between the continents of Afro-Eurasia
until the 1880s most of European interests in Africa were restricted to the coast
relied on indigenous polities and merchant princes
to harness the slaves
to bring slaves to the coast to trade them with European 8traders
the relationship with Africa was restricted mainly to trading
exception was Southern Africa
European settlers had established colonies here in earlier centuries
19th century Europe sought to turn Africa inside out
its interior was largely unknown to Europeans
largely disinterested
steam and transportation changed this
the Suez Canal was a victory of engineering science
it gave way to dreams of turning the Sahara desert into a paradise
missionaries also active in Africa
Africa represented a new religious frontier
science and culture combined to create an idea of up-lift
the poor could be uplifted from their squalor
David Livingston (1813-1873)
represented this ethos
braided roles
Scottish explorer
funded by the Royal Geographical Society
published an article in 1884 called "The Scramble for Africa"
decided to explore the upper Nile territory
was a living legend
death was a state funeral
pioneered geographic expeditions laced with a missionary purpose
into the interior of Africa
uncorked a process of discovery
1885 Mapping Africa in Berlin
Germany had become interested in Africa
had created an office in Cairo
George Schweinfurth
advocate of German expansion into Africa
Africa is science's principle task
Germans were at the forefront of the cartography
1876 Belgium
King Leopold organized a conference
scientific elites
how best to explore the interior of Africa
Britain's delegation was the largest
Portuguese held a conference on Africa as well
1884 Berlin Conference
for statesmen
draft up a set up rules on how to approach and carve up Africa
no African present
the lines they made sliced through ecosystems, languages, ethnicity
Gambia (British) was a river and Senegal (French) around it
based on where the European powers had commercial or military strategic interests
people making great fortunes in this process
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)
Africa was also Indianized
the British increasingly used laws which they had developed in India
the institutions of the Raj
repurposed and adapted
not just the administrators form India who were redeployed
by colonizing Africa, it was brought in closer proximity to India itself
professionals moved to Africa
increasingly created new trade relations
in some areas more Indian colonists than British
especially in South Africa, Indians were a labor force
many Indians moved to Africa
plantations and mines after slavery was abolished in 1833
many Indians began working in near-slave conditions
one of the biggest projects was for the Ugandan railroads
to connect the landlocked country so that it could trade with India
which opened the interior of East Africa to the Indian Ocean
officials were brought in from India
one half of the British army was from India
played a role in putting down resistance against the British
created ongoing tensions between the African population and the Indian immigrant population