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C O U R S E 
Sexing the Canvas: Art and Gender
Jeanette Hoorn, The University of Melbourne
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Gainesborough and 18th Century Effeminism
Notes taken on June 11, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
the culture of sensibility
began a central part of Thomas Gainesborough's work
the man of feeling
embraced by inclined individuals in both the rural and urban spheres in Britain and elsewhere in Europe
first came to prominence in that late 17th century as the sustenance economies of Europe began to be overtaken by a more robust, commercial economy that allowed for the development of a more orderly society in which a new set of social ideals were paramount
in Britain, a campaign for the reformation of manners was overtaken by the state and by the church
in 1689, the new king (William III, ruled 1689-1702) requested the arch bishop and bishop in London to read in churches the statues against immoral behavior such as blasphemy, swearing, perjury, drunkenness and profaning the Sabbath, all essentially vices.
1692 the Society for the Reformation of Manners
1702 Queen Anne issued a proclamation for the encouragement of the female virtues
the prevention and punishment of profaneness
similar edicts
1755 George II
1787 George III
may have encouraged the development of civic humanism, which encouraged
public virtue
bring about literacy for all citizens
those were were literate should teach literacy to those who were not
cultivation of taste
ability to view works of art
the public galleries of the Royal Gallery
the reformation of manners is linked to the Protestant ethic
inculcating sobriety, hard work, and concern for those less fortunate
abolition of cruelty to animals
capitalism was having a change on society
more and more people had the means to pursue pleasure, as a result of greater and broader financial stability
changed manners for both men and women
the traditional values of manhood bound up with classical and warrior ideals
citizen soldier was replaced by businessman, the bureaucrat, and the professional
the term effeminacy came to be used
economic men were speculative
the manliness characteristic of ransacking the globe, was in doubt
"The Blue Boy" (1770), by Thomas Gainsborough
John Locke and Third Earl of Shaftesbury talked about the new science of psycho perception
in which the nervous system was recognized as the material basis of perception
referred to sensation which were connected to the moral senses
Saftesbury warned against immoderate love and overgreat tenderness
excessive pity renders us incapable of giving great succor (assistance and support in times of hardship and distress)
yet he allowed a plausible enthusiasm, a reasonable ecstasy and transport in relation to architecture, paintings and music
the bond that unites men is more emotional than rational
yet the new commercial prosperity made men lose their masculinity, and fall into an exaggerated effeminacy
this was an area that worried the 18th century British citizen
Carl Friedrich Abel (1723-1787)
German composer, renowned player of the viola de gamba
used as an example of a person who pursued and encouraged the cultivation of the senses, and also cultivated reason