More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Seven Years' War and Colonial Revolutions
Notes taken on March 21, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
the results of pressures on empires intensified the stakes of global competition
heightened the cycle of mercantilist wars
resulted in a cascade of revolutions of many sorts
the globalization of empires across the world meant the globalization of warfare
everywhere in the contested zones
in particular the neo-Europes, the new model colonies
eventually meant a global fiscal crisis
the Seven Years' War
"The French and Indian War"
as it is known in the United States
back-country brutality
was really the first world war
saw fighting from Manila to Montreal
the first moment in which empires began to swap colonies and territories as part of a peace process
1763: end of war
a series of immediate losers
New France (Canada) fell to the English
France passed its Canadian colonies onto what appeared to be the immediate winner of this global contest, Great Britain
occupations of several of its prime colonies including huge naval stations in Havana and Manila
but Spain and France would wait for their moment to get their revenge on the British
British victory was Pyrrhic victory
immediately faced a challenge of funding
huge debts from fighting
their now sprawling, global empire
augmented pressure back home in London to reform along the lines of the Enlightenment
had to try to get the colonies to pay for themselves
stop the hemorrhaging of resources from the central government in London
tax hikes to pay for expenses
at this point in history, the expenses were largely military, as there were not yet welfare states
most empires were raising revenues and taxes
colonies objected to these new taxes
this was the change for France and Spain to get their revenge for their humiliation during the Seven Years' War
Spain and France bankrolled what would become the American Revolution
especially naval assistance especially after 1778 when the fate of the American revolution could have been lost
American Revolution
British increasing fear in pressing on with the fight and losing British Northern America threatened loss of colonies elsewhere
especially India
what happened in 1776 was the first of its kind
possessions would break loose, beginning with the American colonies which was, however, relatively small at the time
the breakaway of the colonies invoked a new, historic model
it was a defense of the natural rights of free born Englishmen against the caprice of King George III
against unjust fiscal laws
result was that the American revolutionaries, without intending it to be this way, had worldwide repercussions
1. created a new model of self-determination, an idea that people were endowed with rights to determine who governed them
2. once the old British state ceased trying to constrain encroaching on the wilderness and Indians, the constraints on settler expansion were lifted
British no longer needed to have formal control over the colonies
looked at them now as a partner
they could get the best of commercial interaction without having to pay for fighting in the frontiers which they let the new States in America conduct
a win win for the British
3. freedom
part about nation states and self-government
the age of revolutions was beginning to spread a language of liberty in directions that people had not really intended or imagined
personal liberties
women to choose their husbands
free will
idea that slaves could be free from their masters
slaves would feel their fields as armies moved through
international context
James Madison addressing the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia: "Carthage in Rome tore one another to pieces instead of uniting their forces to devour weaker nations of the earth. The houses of Austria and France were hostile as long as they remained the great powers of Europe. England and France have succeeded in the preeminence and to the enmity to the rivalry, and it is to this principle we owe perhaps our liberty."