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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Strains on the Universality of the Enlightenment
Notes taken on September 10, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
people in the 18th and early 19th century had to consider what they wanted to do with all this new information, artifacts, discoveries, and inventions
new information came in from far-flung corners of the world
a challenge of this age was to repackage this information and derive new laws which made sense of it all
new kinds of institutions to organize knowledge
1838: Royal Agricultural Society of England
motto "Practice with Science"
promote the scientific development of agriculture
created greenhouses for new plants coming back from the discovery voyages
physician associations
economic societies
attach the new methods of science to commerce and derive laws for what makes economies flourish and fail
Adam Smith
1776, book: "The Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations"
four volumes in all
he's referring to the wealth of all nations
explored the laws of human behavior
an epic struggle within the soul of every man trying to channel his passions
men's passions had to give way to self-interest
the goal was to set up conditions so that the operations of the "invisible hand" could take place
this was seen as a new faith, a faith in reason, a break with faiths of earlier ages
new governments
a sense that we can take the scientific method and apply it to finding better ways to organize humans into political entities
Enlightenment thinkers generally believed that humans were perfectible
had political ramifications
not only men
Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women were able to reason as well
if women are left out of this movement, how universal can the laws of the Enlightenment be
1792 "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
reminding people that this new universalism was leaving people out
that these universal claims were disguises for creating new patterns of social stratification which did not include everybody as equals
beyond the boundaries of Europe
"man" turned out to be a very varied creature which put strains on the "universal" claims of the Enlightenment
people become increasingly associated with skin color
an effort was increasingly made to catalog people, to organize people in the Americas and people from parents with different colored skin and from different continents, inventing a category for every sort of mix of people:
the Casta Paintings
create new demographic categories
Indios (Amerindians)
Mestizos (mixed Amerindian and White)
Castizos (White with some Mestizo)
Cholos (Amerindian with some Mestizo)
Pardos (mixed White, African, and Amerindian)
Mulatos (mixed African and White)
Zambos (mixed Amerindian and African mix)