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C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Managerial States and the Transnational Disruption of 1968
Notes taken on August 10, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
middle of 1960s Cold War begins to decay
settles into its second decade
relations become routine
both sides stepped back from the brink of the Cuban Missile Crisis
both sides seem to want to make the conflict just a part of ordinary life
popular culture reactions
1964: Fail Safe
about a nuclear crisis where the Soviets are not the villains and the United States is not the hero or the villain
both superpowers find themselves trapped by the malfunctions of their own technology
1964: Seven Days in May
plot to take over American government in order to keep the president from signing an arms control treaty with the Soviets
1965: Dr. Strangelove
the nuclear build up is seen as a form of collective insanity fit only for the subject of satire and the darkest of dark humor
Soviets have given up their effort to change the status quo in Europe
National security states
large, Cold War bureaucracies
hierarchies are in charge of most important areas
managerial states
United States
Neil McElroy
president of Procter & Gamble
1957-1959: Secretary of Defense
Robert McNamara
president of Ford Motor Company
1961-1968: Secretary of Defense
Communist countries
the gray, almost faceless members of the Soviet Politburo
each person providing guidance to various government ministries
the government of one communist country looked like the next
managerial state is being challenged
Mao Zedong's revolutionary Great Leap Forward
not only leading a war against the recalcitrant countryside, but against his own powerful ministries who are sapping the zeal out of the revolution
China is actually being managed by people like Liu Shaoqi
very planned economy
liberation from stifling hierarchy
1962 book: Catch-22, Joseph Heller
a novel based on his WWII experience in Italy, B-25 bomber squadron
the enemy never appears
the enemy turns out to be the managerial state itself, the military bureaucracy, insane, plodding, throwing bomber crews into more meaningless missions in which they might get killed
1962 book: Revolutionary Road, Richard Yates
the young husband and wife, full of dreams
find themselves settling down in suburbia
meaning seems to be draining out of their lives
the societal structures suffocate them and lead to personal crises
rights revolution
started in 1960s and expanded into the 70s
was domestic and international at the same time
the United States plays a catalytic role
because of the civil rights turmoil
there was a big push to get civil rights for African American, in 1950s coming to a climax in the 1960s
government may not dicriminate based on race
e.g. segregation of public schools or bus system
this is a law which refers to the government
however, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 stated that even private firms and individuals cannot discriminate based on race or sex
this was an enormous extension of the scope of these changes
set precedents which spread around the world beginning in Europe, e.g. in Britain in the 1970s
so part of the rights revolution is how people in the United States and in other countries began to see the extensiveness of these laws, and the power of these precedents
this is a challenge to the big, managerial state
more formal calls for freedom
from not only racial groups but other kinds of groups
not only against governments and big business but against big unions
groups against those being favored who are already on the inside
1968: the famous year of disruption
Czech people are trying to through out Soviet dominated communist rule but Soviets crush this revolution and reinstate the rule of orthodox communists
rebellion against the structures of the structures of President de Gaulle's government (President 1959-1969)
against the big institutions of French life
anti-Vietnam protests
rebellion against democratic socialism decaying into a government of cronies helping each other out
Mao leading revolution against government institutions
encourage his guards to attack the aging intellectuals who are now obstructing the revolution
leading common causes of the Great Disruption
balancing local vs. transnational
to what extent are all of the protests in 1968 a series of coincidences and to what extent are they connected as an international movement
what portion are local and what portion are common and transnational
what is the connection between various countries
hypothesis #1: China is different
since you have there Mao leading a revolution against his own government
hypothesis #2: living on a quiet volcano
millions of people been living under the shadow of imminent world war for decades
created society-wide, existential unease
as it becomes more routine, there is a reaction against this kind of world of permanent conflict
hypothesis #3: students
in many of the affected countries, students are key actors
there is an infrastructure of new universities, many just a generation old
they are being empowered with a vocabulary of mobilization
opportunities to mobilize in the university's structures environment
its hard for many of these countries to attack their young people
hypothesis #4: American turmoil with Vietnam as a catalyst
Vietnam War is a catalyst which sets off broader challenges to the managerial state
people around the world are noticing and inspired by what is happening in the United States
one of the most interesting aspects of the Great Disruption of 1968 is that the protesters did not overturn society
much of society reacts with fear to the breakdown of public order
societies become more polarized as the forces of order strike back
China's "secret years of terror" begins to get out of hand
Liu Shaoqi expelled from the Party as a renegade and traitor, then dies of injuries from abuse he received
United States
1968 the Johnson administration decides it can't escalate the war
when Johnson leaves office, he is replaced not by anti-war dissidents
replaced by Richard Nixon, he has two options
option #1: escalate the war by attacking the North in a ground war
option #2: slowly Vietnamize the war by getting the American troops out and letting Vietnam fight its own civil war
takes a middle road
launches campaign into Cambodia
hoping North Vietnam will quit
Leonid Brezhnev (General Secretary from 1964-1982)
increase military power
feel they are equivalent to United States in military power
wants to maintain superpower status
break-away republics will be forced back in to the communist bloc
Mao increasingly worried about the Soviet Union as being a more dangerous enemy than the United States
Mao therefore warms up to the United States
this is over portrayed as "Nixon's opening to China" but the real variable which created that opening came from the Chinese side