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C O U R S E 
The Ancient Greeks
Andrew Szegedy-Maszak, Wesleyan University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Delian League
Notes taken on August 5, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
Second Persian War
479 BC: ended with the battles of Plataea and Mycale
a general sense of euphoria among the Greeks
three practical results from this war
1. the Persian threat was effectively at an end
2. a sense of Greek unity, at least briefly
Greek states made an offering at Delphi
a column commemorating this was taken from Delphi to Istanbul by Emperor Constantine
inscription: these fought the war, and listed all of the Greek poleis which fought
a short-lived sense of Greek political unity
a major ideological shift
a distinction between Greek and not-Greek, or as the Greeks called them: barbarians
barbarians simply don't speak Greek, mainly, the Persians
Athens and Sparta emerge as the two dominant, hegemonic poleis
two of the heroes of the Persian Wars
1. Pausanias [Παυσανίας], died 470 BC
Spartan general
victory at Plataea and the Battle of Mycale
a scion of the royal house of the Agiads but was not in the direct line of succession
gain enormous prestige from victory
went up to the north-east in the area of Byzantium for mopping up operations
acted very arrogant
was "going native", began to wear Persian clothing
Greeks under his command, especially the Ionians, were very put off by this
recalled to Sparta, disciplined, sent out again, recalled again
escaped capture by the ephors, Spartans chased him, brought him out so he wouldn't pollute the temple, and he died shortly thereafter
2. Themistocles
new breed of non-aristocratic politicians
checkered career
Spartans proposed that cities north of Peloponnese remain unwalled as sign of Greek unity
Athenians thought this was not a good idea
Themistocles went to Sparta and stalled while he sent messages back to Athens to build walls back up
Spartans send embassy up but were detained
not a good beginning after war with Persians
encouraged to Athenians to build up navy
471 BC enemies got him ostracized
nine years after his victory at Salamis
went to Persia
became an advisor of Greek affairs and died there
these two are emblematic of what happens to many Greek leaders at this time
can't be sure that Persia won't come back
Pausanias behavior alienated the allies
they got together and asked the Athenians a defense alliance
Delian League
478 BC Greeks formed a league
centered on island of Delos
sacred to Apollo and Artemis
their birth place
where their mother Leto had gone to give birth
pan-hellenic sanctuary
Greeks from many places came to worship
had a long Athenian connection
6th century BC: Tyrant Pisistratus
overseen a purification of the island
moved graves away from central shrine
often represented as a palm tree
French archeologists have been digging there for a long time
many ancient ruins
lion colonnade
league assembly in which each of the states had an equal vote
each state could determine its political course
provide some kind of annual support
on loan to the league
would return to parent state
maintained on Delos
used to build ships
one reason why Themistocles suggested a navy
keep the East Aegean a Persian-free zone
this was a prelude to Athenian domination
large conceptual change
no longer the old war of hoplites
their own armor
dealed for a brief time with a temporary threat
no the navy was kept on constant patrol
keep Persians away
collect intelligence
manned by sailors who had full-time jobs
navy is economically very costly
a new way of thinking about the individual to the larger Greek community
and the relationship between individual and warfare
developed into an Athenian empire