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C O U R S E 
Alexander the Great
Guy MacLean Rogers, Wellesley College
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)
Notes taken on October 1, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
during large, set-piece battles that Alexander fought
companion cavalry usually stationed on right-hand side
on the left-hand side, the Cavalry of Thessaly
1800 man strong unit
commanded by a Macedonian officer
fought in a diamond or rhomboid shape
a defensive shape
allowed to fight in any direction
Battle of Gugamela
though heavily outnumbered, Alexander emerged victorious due to his superior tactics and army
defensive fighting allowed Alexander to launch a wedge attack against left side of Persian lines
Cavalry of Thessaly equal to that of Macedon
big picture
what Philip did was to create the first truly professional army in world history
in fact, what he did was turn a state into an army
an army trained to fight in any tactical situation
under any circumstances
on any terrain
throughout the year
this was not an army of amateur citizen soldiers as in Greece
this was an army of professionals whose sole profession was warfare
during the 350s and 340s first the Phocians, then the Thessalonians
until he came into contact and conflict of that second ring of Macedon's enemies, the city-states of central Greece
Third Sacred War (356–346 BC)
fought between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians
caused by a large fine imposed in 357 BC on the Phocians by the Amphictyonic League (dominated at that moment by Thebes), for the offense of cultivating sacred land, refusing to pay, the Phocians instead seized the Temple of Apollo in Delphi
338 BC: Battle of Chaeronea [Χαιρώνεια]
matters came to a head at the
between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes
battle was the culmination of Philip's campaign in Greece (339–338 BC) and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians
Philip had the more professional army
Philip's 18 year old son, Alexander, led the decisive charge through the line of the city-states
1000 Athenians were killed
entire sacred band of Thebes wiped out
the outcome changed the course of history for Greece and the Mediterranean world
the Athenians received back their 2000 prisoners of war
but were forced into an alliance with the Macedonians
Thebes lost control of the rich, agricultural plain around the city and an oligarchic government was imposed upon it
Sparta, which had taken no part in the battle, had its territory invaded
Macedonian garrisons were installed at Corinth, Thebes, and elsewhere
Macedon's domination of Greece was no longer a matter of diplomacy and soft power, but a fact of arms