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C O U R S E 
History of Rock, 1970-Present
John Covach, University of Rochester
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1980s: Rap Crosses Over to Mainstream
Notes taken on December 7, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
rap was originally a live experience only
you had to be there to experienced how it happened
if you are going to make money in the music business, you have to cross over to white audiences
that's where the money was
that's where the disposable income was
you had to figure out a way of taking whatever music you had out of a niche audience, and getting it onto the white charts, and into the white awareness
the people responsible for doing this were
Russell Simmons
Rick Rubin
when to school together at New York University
1983 founded Def Jam Recordings
they were the ones who understood how to bring rap into the mainstream
influenced rap to change so that it was more consumable by listeners of mainstream rock
groups that brought rap to a mainstream audience
LL Cool J
1986 Radio
"I Can't Live Without My Radio"
featured in the move Krush Groove
1987 Bigger and Deffer
"I Need Love", perhaps the first rap ballad
Joseph Simmons (Run)
Darryl McDaniels (DMC)
DJ Jason Mizel (Jam Master Jay)
1984 RUN-D.M.C.
"Rock Box"
gets much MTV play
needed to make a video for MTV
needed to feature distorted rock guitar
Michael Jackson knew this, e.g. sang with Paul McCartney, and bring Eddie Van Halen in for Beat It
a young Macaulay Culkin from Home Alone
Erwin Corway
so brought people in who were famous in order to cross over
1985 King of Rock
1986 Raising Hell
the breakthrough album
what made this record cross over
did "Walk This Way" from Aerosmith
the DJ would isolate it
brought in Steven Tyler and Joe Perry from Aerosmith
they go back and forth doing this song
was good for both song
Aerosmith was still popular on MTV
gave Run-DMC quite a bit of appeal
there was much animosity in the rock community against the rock video
the video represented this, they poke through the wall which symbolizes the crossover
Beastie Boys
started out as a New York hardcore punk group
turned to rap as it became more popular
1986 Licensed to Ill
"You Gotta Fight For Your Right to Party"
one of the first groups to use digital sampling as opposed to the analog sampling of records
much more precise
more reliable
but it doesn't require the same kind of skill
interestingly a white group
another kind of cross over