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C O U R S E 
Controversies of British Imperialism
Richard Toye, University of Exeter
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
19th Century India and South Africa
Notes taken on September 18, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
expansion in India
mid 18th century
initially a rivalry with the French
over next century
large areas of India came under British control
assumed a new important for Britain
after loss of 13 American colonies
India fixed itself in the English imagination as the jewel in the British imperial crown in Victorian period
1871 census
236 million Indians were either directly under British control
or in native or princely states
1857 rebellion in India
a shock to the British imperial psyche
British army numbered around 250,000 troops
but only 50,000 were European
this rebellion broke out in the Indian army
large tracks of territory particularly in the north of India were completely out of control
took over a year to suppress
led to a major change in how British would rule India
double-edged sword
1. test of Imperial will which the British felt they emerged victoriously in 1857
East Indian Company, which had ruled India at arms length, had its powers transferred to the British crown
began the British Raj which lasted until 1947
2. Britain's confidence had been punctured of 1857
in the first half of the 19th century British sought to modernize and Westernize India
this was no longer the case in the second half of the 19th century
a passion for improvement gave way to a concern of law and order
the Victorian's confidence evaporated
imperialism became a must more defensive approach
same as in Africa
to fend off and contest the extension of influence which they saw being asserted by other imperlial powers
Expansion in Africa
19th century witnesses dramatic changes with Europe's relations with Africa
in 1914, 90% of Africa's territory was under control of
10 million square miles of territory
called New Imperialism, Scramble for Africa, Partition of Africa
empire was about natural resources, money, and trade and the power that came with these
very true in Southern Africa
in 19th century, South Africa was happy enough for these states to have their independence
Dutch Boer settlers in the Orange Free State
Transvaal state
1880 First Boer War
Britain vs. Transvaal
1880 granted independence under Pretoria Convention
but then diamonds were discovered in Kimberley in the Orange Free State and discovery of gold in the Transvaal state, brought
Paul Kruger and the Afrikaners
the personification of Afrikanerdom
tragic folk hero
obstinate guardian of an unjust cause
discovery of gold gave Kruger the economic resources to underwrite the political independence of the Transvaal
74 million pounds of foreign capital flooded into the region, much from Britain
transformation of the region
Kruger was a threat to the British
wanted to build a railway line to coast in Mozambique
1899-1902: Second Boer War
between Britain and Transvaal Republic and the Orange state
both sides had been readying for a fight
quite expensive for Britain
Transvaal and Orange Free State were transferred into the British Empire
Alfred Milner and his "Kindergarten"
noted for mentoring a gathering of young members of the South African Civil Service, informally known as Milner's Kindergarten
reestablished British control in the region
it didn't last very long
there were pro and con voices in Britain itself
pro-war propaganda effort
gave rise to a relief effort for the soldiers
1914: Botha and Smuts
two Afrikaners
created the Union of South Africa (1910-1914)
predecessor to Republic of South Africa
900 war memorials in Britain, testimony how deeply the war had effected the psyche of the nation