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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1900-1909: Russian and Turkish Dynasties
Notes taken on May 1, 2017 by Edward Tanguay
late 19th century colonial world
colonial authorities found themselves as occupiers rather than liberators
engaged in unconventional wars
not what the military authorities had been trained to practice
led to total wars in the colonies with three features
1. armies become occupying armies
struggling to control territories, as well as people rising up against them
2. to justify these practices, the colonial peoples were increasingly dehumanized
the increasingly became the other
cast in a role as the other
necessarily inferior
irremediably hopeless
deserving of the fate being meted out on them
3. the sheer asymmetry of power
what General von Trotha wielded in complete superiority over the Hereros was staggering
the Hereros had little to use to wage a confrontation
paradox: once colonial armies were drawn into these conflicts, it was very hard to extricate themselves
dynasties were increasingly in trouble
a new cycle of revolutions
an echo of the revolutions around the turn of the 19th century, e.g. the American and French revolutions
culminated in Russia in 1917
pre-WWI, 20th century
other rivalries
with Japan in the Pacific
with the British in central Asia
increasingly with German in Europe
Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
Japan humiliates Russia
Czarist regime was faced with
rising fiscal troubles
growing domestic inequities
demands for reforms
calls to put constraints on the power of the Czar himself
1905 St. Petersburg, Bloody Sunday
Czarist troops responded to calls for reform with repression
the Czar did agree to some reforms
Duma was created
party system
1906 new constitution
reforms issued in the wake of protests
Pyotr Stolypin (1862-1911)
managed reforms
but the reforms was too little, too late
late 19th century had reformers
the Young Turks
wanted to transform the decrepit, stagnant Ottoman empire into a modern nation-state
1908 new constitution
provoked a round of tension and reprisals
Armenian minorities began to demand new rights
Christian Armenians were secessionists, and anti-Turkish
Young Turks accused of allowing these upstart minorities to get too many freedoms
1909 civilians accused of treason against the sultan were hanged
Armenian massacres were widespread
pogroms with 30,000 people dead in some areas
led to genocide during WWI
this specter of atrocity was picked up in European news
evoked opinion against Ottoman Empire as world learns of genocide
the first Holocaust
a new humanitarian crusade
the first human rights movement
photo journalist
tapped into peoples being able to identify with other peoples